American Indian Slaves
Donnis D. Whitfield
November 24, 2001
The American Indian is the most regulated and misunderstood group of people on the face of the earth today. In order to understand the present, we must go back to the beginning of recorded history and see it as it has affected this group of people. We find the earliest records in the form of writings on rocks though out North America. A Harvard Professor, Dr. Barry Fell, in his book of 1976 titled "America B.C." has uncovered evidence that Celts from Spain and Semitic people from Carthage, Libya, and Egypt were visitors to North America as far back as 800 B.C. Also the book, "In Plain Sight" by author Gloria Farley will substantiate this information. So to the people that hold the erroneous belief that Columbus "discovered America", there is plenty of evidence to debunk this hoax. As far as the Cherokee are concerned, we have to look no farther than their own backyard in Loudon County, Tennessee on Bat Creek. Not only has the Bat Creek Stone been documented in the fore mentioned books, but also has been extensively documented in a video production by Dr. Arnold Murray of Shepherd’s Chapel Productions. In 1889, William Emmert of the Smithsonian Institution excavated a small, unrifled mound at Bat Creek. With the stone were found nine skeletons, two copper bracelets and wooden ear spools. Dr. Murray places the date on this site as between 45 B.C. and 100 A.D. On the stone was found an ancient Hebrew inscription that was translated, as "The Lion of Judah-May the voice of God, be the poker that gathers these firebrands". Dr. Murray concluded that a Hebrew priest must have written the inscription. The copper bracelets were analyzed to be brass that was of an alloy that dated to around 45 B.C. from the Asia Minor region. This is only one account of many visitors that were in North America before Columbus "discovered America". Who were they visiting? Could it have possibly been the American Indians?
Although the slave trade began in 1441 when the Portuguese mariner Antam Goncalvez landed on the west coast of Africa in search of skins and oils, the official beginning was in 1472 when the Portuguese captain Ruy de Sequiero received royal permission, from the king of Benin, to trade for gold, ivory, and slaves in Africa. With the development of slavery in Europe, which came out of the wars of the Moslems and Christians, the religious anthropology of colonialism assumed an innate and absolute superiority of the European powers over all other people of the world because of divine endowment. "No slaughter was impermissible, no lie dishonorable, no breach of trust shameful, if it advantaged the champions of the true religion. In the gradual transition from religious conceptions to racial conceptions, the gulf between persons calling themselves Christian and the other persons, whom they call heathers, translated smoothly into the chasm between whites and coloreds. The law of moral obligation sanctioned behavior on only one side of that chasm... the Christian Caucasians of Europe are not only holy and white but also civilized, while the pigmented heathens of distant lands are not only idolatrous and dark but savage. Thus the absolutes of predator and prey have been preserved, and the grandeur of invasion and massacre has kept its sanguinary radiance". (Jennings, pg.6)
A new kind of slavery was born in the fifteenth century. It was sanctioned by a religious ideology in which the very humanity of the religious "other" was called into question by a system in which political, economic, racial, and religious interests became hopelessly intertwined. The "religious" motives of colonial expansion became mired in greed, power, racism, and political intrigue. The Bull of Pope Nicholas V exemplifies this confusion of motives. Nicholas sought to "bestow suitable favors and special graces on those Catholic kings and princes, who... not only restrain the savage excesses of Saracens and of other infidels... but also for the defense and increase of the faith vanquish them and their kingdoms and habitations, though situated in the remotest parts unknown to us... (Bull Romanus Pontifex, pg.21) Thus in order to increase the faith, the Christians of the Old World must meet the peoples of different worlds, "vanquish them" and "reduce their persons to perpetual slavery." This was the papal decree. This was the "Great Commission."
So, in keeping with the "Great Commission", Columbus "discovered" America in 1492 (note 1). He dedicated his voyages "to the glory of the Holy Trinity and to that of the Holy Christian religion" and his goal was "I hope in Our Lord to be able to propagate His holy name and His gospel though out the Universe." (Todorov, pg.11) This sounds positive but will the real Columbus please stand up? He does in his first report back to the king "Finally, to sum up in a few words the chief results and advantages of our departure and speedy return, I make this promise to our most invincible sovereigns, that, if I am supported by some little assistance from them, I will give them as much gold as they have need of, and, in addition spices, cotton, and mastic, which is found only in Chios, and as much aloes-wood, and as many heathen slaves as their majesty may choose to demand." (Columbus, pg.6) On Columbus’ second voyage to the Americas, several Franciscan priests to engage in the missionary effort accompanied him. They came with a holy commission from Pope Alexander VI granting that "Among other duties pleasing to the Divine Majesty and dear to our heart is that the Catholic faith and Christian religion be particularly exalted in our day and everywhere be spread and enlarged, so that souls be saved and barbaric people be humbled and brought to the faith." (Shiels, pg.78)
Thus the foundation had been laid for the total enslavement, along with the rape and pillage of wealth that was in possession of the Indios, of the "New World" by the Spanish. The usurpation of the power to enslave was continued by the French and the English. This usurpation of power is with us, the American Indian, today in the form of the United States government. The feds speak of nation-to-nation relationships and tell us we are "Sovereign". People, we cannot be sovereign and be a fictitious entity in the form of a corporation or in any other fictitious form. The Cherokee called themselves the "Aniyunwiya", the Real People, the natural people. They did not say "We are the Aniyunwiya, Inc." Please find the word "corporation" in the following definition as taken from Bouvier Law Dictionary of 1856:
SOVEREIGNTY. The union and exercise of all human power possessed in a state; it is a combination of all power; it is the power to do everything in a state without accountability; to make laws, to execute and to apply them: to impose and collect taxes, and, levy, contributions; to make war or peace; to form treaties of alliance or of commerce with foreign nations, and the like.
2. Abstractedly, sovereignty resides in the body of the nation and belongs to the people. But these powers are generally exercised by delegation.
3. When analyzed, sovereignty is naturally divided into three great powers; namely, the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary; the first is the power to make new laws, and to correct and repeal the old; the second is the power to execute the laws both at home and abroad; and the last is the power to apply the laws to particular facts; to judge the disputes which arise among the citizens, and to punish crimes.
4. Strictly speaking, in our republican forms of government, the absolute sovereignty of the nation is in the people of the nation; (q. v.) and the residuary sovereignty of each state, not granted to any of its public functionaries, is in the people of the state. (q. v.) 2 Dall. 471; and vide, generally, 2 Dall. 433, 455; 3 Dall. 93; 1 Story, Const. 208; 1 Toull. n. 20 Merl. Reper. h. t.
It simply is not in this definition. The key to regaining our sovereignty and our Indian nation is to act as a sovereign as we were when we were a treaty making people. The people that think they are sovereign, are slaves. The people that act as a sovereign, are.
Note 1: We now know the year of Columbus’s first voyage was 1485. The source for this is the article in The Times (UK) dated TUESDAY MAY 08 2001 by RICHARD OWEN titled Columbus ‘discovered America earlier’
Columbus, Christopher. Letter to Gabriel Sanchez. Old South Leaflets, Vol. II
Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. Chapel Hill: U.N.C. Press, 1975.
Shiels, W. Eugene. King and Church: The rise and fall of the Patronato Real
Todorov, Tzvetan. The Conquest of America.
Also see The Papal Bull Romanus Pontifex 1455 and The Papal Bull Inter Caetera 1493
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